Opportunities and limits to water pollution regulations
Managing water pollution, from source-to-sea, is a challenge requiring regulatory, economic and voluntary practices. These approaches have strengths and limits. Decision-makers face complex questions: How much pollution is acceptable and affordable without hindering sustainable growth? What policy responses reduce pollution at lowest cost to society? How can emerging contaminants with uncertain consequences be managed? Join us to debate these issues and more over three sessions.
Session I: Opportunities and limits to command and control approaches to water pollution management. Where water quality is impacted by point sources of pollution, the response has been to control and manage through legislation. However, in situations where water quality is impacted by diffuse source pollution, this mechanism is less effective and differing approaches are required. This session will explore these topics drawn from papers and panel discussion.
Opportunities and limits to command and control approaches to water pollution management
Moderator: Simon Langan, IIASA
11:05 Not so much the water as what's in it
Simon Langan, IIASA
11:15 An operator’s views on Wastewater regulations around the world
Nicholas Le Poder, Veolia
11:25 Wastewater management regulations: challenges and opportunities for Africa
Clever Mafuta, GRID-Arendal
11:35 Agrochemical use in argentine farming and its impact on water - legal implications
Clara Minaverry, CONICET
11:45 Group participation survey
Danka Thalmeinerova, GWP, and Madison Condon, Earth Institute - Columbia University
11:50 Integrated management of industrial effluents in Montevideo - Uruguay
Alicia Stella Raffaele Vázquez, Government of Montevideo
11:55 Water quality and climate change: Science supply vs. demand
Meghan Klasic, UC Davis
12:00 Panel Q&A
Simon Langan, IIASA
12:30 End of session
Water of adequate quality is an increasingly scarce resource. At least half the world’s population suffers from polluted water and the situation is set to worsen in all regions of the world. Population growth, coupled with climate change, are placing pressure on the ability of finite water bodies to process wastewater and contaminants. In the future, resource management should be developed using a more systematic, holistic approach that is incorporated with ecosystem and SDG thinking.
Improving water quality is a critical element of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, playing an essential role in reducing poverty and disease and promoting sustainable growth. The cumulative effects of point and diffuse source water pollution can undermine sustainable economic growth. In developed economies, the focus on point source pollution as a means of improving water quality is reaching its limit, as pollution from unregulated diffuse sources continues to rise. Eutrophication from runoff of excess nutrients is considered the most prevalent challenge globally. Developing economies will be tasked with the difficulty of managing both point and diffuse source pollution; in particular there are substantial gains to be made for the economy, human health, environment, and social development from greater investment in sanitation and wastewater treatment. Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, microplastics, industrial chemicals, and nanomaterials) challenge both traditional policy regulations and existing wastewater treatment infrastructure.
A new paradigm is needed to change how we view, use, and manage water resources in a way that creates less pollution. There are a number of potential solution pathways based around reducing excessive use of inputs (e.g., fertilisers, pesticides, and chemicals), implementing best land use practices, and technical interventions to separate pollutants at point of use -- as opposed to confronting the accumulation of contaminants downstream. The recovery and re-use of resource elements (water, nutrients and energy) contained within wastewater is a promising growth area that requires continued innovation. CECs pose a particular challenge for wastewater reuse. Bringing about such changes presents obstacles and requires economic and societal considerations.
Emerging, innovative policies can be adapted and scaled-up to more effectively manage water pollution. Improving water quality from source-to-sea requires managing both point and diffuse sources of pollution, integrating with land use management and planning, and water quantity management. A mix of economic, regulatory and administrative tools exist, though they require moral persuasion and policy coherence across sectors to achieve desired outcomes. Collaboration among industry, regulatory bodies and the research community is required. Computer modelling is proving a useful tool in placing limits on diffuse pollution and enabling land managers to innovate farm and land management practices. Innovative monitoring methodologies, safe effect-based thresholds values, international cooperation, and source-directed, precautionary policies are essential tools to guide the formulation and implementation of regulations that reduce contaminants of emerging concern. Reaching our goals will require the adoption of a mix of policy interventions that embrace the OECD water management principles -- pollution prevention, treatment at source, the polluter pays and beneficiary pays principles, equity, and policy coherence.